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the invasion had been planned and financed by the u.s. even down to the training of the cuban exiles at a military base in guatemala. the united states denied any such involvement in a carefully worded at the same time -- worded statement to the united nations. >> the united states has created no aggression against cuba. >> this was fertile ground for soviet integration. u.s. aerial reconnaissance photos showed approximately 40 soviet offensive nuclear weapons being set up and manned by an estimated 22,000 soviet troops. >> in 1962 there was a missile soviet gap. the soviet union could not afford to build new ones. the solution was to put short range and medium range missiles right in our backyard. the whole world literally was watching to see what president john kennedy would do. >> had kennedy done what the joint chiefs of staff wanted to do which was to invade, that there would have immediately been a nuclear war and it would have started on so called tactical level. at that point in the fall of 1962 them -- then certainly would have spread to all right out nuclear war. >> report
of the most controversial the chief justices in u.s. history. earl warren. in 1964 separate but equal was the rule for america's schools. a law that allowed schools to separate students by race. that's until warren said that separate is inherently unequal. we take a look back 60 years after that decision. >> reporter: this could be any schoolyard in any city in america. 50 years ago the scene was much different. white children went to one school while black children went the to another. segregation had been the law of the land since 1896 cemented the separate but equal doctrine. after world worldd war ii ended, cracks began appearing. president harry trueman desegregated the armed services. jackie robinson became the first african american. and thurgood marshall was gaining steam. 7-year-old linda brown became the icon for the landmark supreme court ruling. she had to travel dozens of blocks to a black elementary school but her home was just seven blocks away from sumner elementary, an all white school. >> i had spanish american play mates, i had native american play mates, i had whit
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